Name: 
 

Test 2 - Chapters 4, 5, 6, 7 & 8



True/False
Indicate whether the statement is true or false. (1-Point Each)
 

 1. 

The Ptolemaic model of the universe was heliocentric.
 

 2. 

An atom that has lost an electron is called an ion.
 

 3. 

The Copernican model of the solar system has the planets orbit the sun along elliptical paths.
 

 4. 

Because radio waves are longer than visible light, a radio telescope can use a wire mesh surface.
 

 5. 

Reflecting telescopes are no longer popular with astronomers because they are expensive and suffer from chromatic aberration.
 

 6. 

The absolute magnitude of a star is the apparent magnitude it would have if it were 10 pc from Earth.
 

 7. 

Isotopes of the same element have the same number of protons.
 

 8. 

X-rays easily penetrate Earth's atmosphere and reach the ground from space.
 

 9. 

Most of the visible light from the sun originates in the photosphere.
 

 10. 

Blue stars are hotter than red stars.
 

 11. 

An absorption spectrum is also called a bright line spectrum.
 

 12. 

We can find the masses and diameters of stars that are in eclipsing binary systems.
 

 13. 

In hot stars molecules are broken apart due to the high energies.  Only in cool stars can molecules exist.
 

 14. 

Reflecting UV telescopes do not need to have a finely polished a mirror because the wavelengths are longer than visible light.
 

 15. 

Copernicus was the first to propose that Earth moved around the sun.
 

 16. 

The Lyman series lines of hydrogen all lie in the infrared.
 

 17. 

Light can behave as a particle or as a wave.
 

 18. 

The amount of energy a photon carries depends on its wavelength.
 

 19. 

The Doppler effect is sensitive only to motion along the line of sight.
 

 20. 

Hydrogen lines are weak in the spectra of hot stars because many of the hydrogen atoms are ionized.
 

 21. 

Classical Greek astronomers believed the motions of the heavens could be described by uniform circular motion.
 

 22. 

Kepler overthrew the univerform circular motion idea that was previously accepted by Astronomers.
 

 23. 

The chromosphere of the sun has a higher temperature than the photosphere.
 

 24. 

The force due to gravity has the mathematical form: tf024-1.jpg
 

 25. 

The location of a star in the HR diagram indicates its temperature and intrinsic brightness.
 

 26. 

Granulation is caused by rising currents of hot gas below the photosphere.
 

 27. 

The Babcock model employs differential rotation of the solar surface and a magnetic dynamo to describe the formation of sunspots.
 

 28. 

Sunspots are hotter than the photosphere.
 

 29. 

The Hubble telescope can see in wavelengths that we cannot see on earth because of the absorption of wavelengths from our atmosphere.
 

 30. 

Many classical Greek astronomers believed Earth could not move because they detected no parallax.
 

 31. 

To observe a spectroscopic binary, we must be able to see both stars individually.
 

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. (3-Points Each)
 

 32. 

An achromatic lens
a.
contains two mirrors and focuses the light back through the primary mirror.
b.
is used to correct chromatic aberration in reflecting telescopes.
c.
is used to correct spherical aberration in reflecting telescopes.
d.
is used to correct spherical aberration in refracting telescopes.
e.
is used to correct chromatic aberration in refracting telescopes.
 

 33. 

We know that giant stars are larger in diameter than the sun because
a.
they have a larger absolute magnitude than the sun.
b.
they are more luminous but have about the same temperature.
c.
they are hotter but have about the same luminosity.
d.
they are cooler but have about the same luminosity.
e.
they are less luminous but have about the same temperature.
 

 34. 

Sunspots are known to be magnetic phenomena because
a.
infrared observations indicate that the sunspots are cooler than their surroundings.
b.
the Zeeman effect is observed in sunspots.
c.
collisional broadening is observed in spectral lines.
d.
Doppler shifts in spectral lines are observed.
e.
observations during eclipses reveal a very extensive photosphere.
 

 35. 

The diagram below illustrates a light source, a gas cloud, and three different lines of sight. Along which line of sight would an observer see an emission spectrum?

mc035-1.jpg
a.
none of them
b.
2
c.
1
d.
2 and 3
e.
3
 

 36. 

A __________ is a piece of glass with many small parallel lines etched on its surface to produce a spectrum.
a.
photometer
b.
charge-coupled device
c.
grating
d.
prism
e.
spectrograph
 

 37. 

The diagram below illustrates a light source, a gas cloud, and three different lines of sight. Along which line of sight would an observer see an continuous spectrum?

mc037-1.jpg
a.
none of them
b.
3
c.
2
d.
1
e.
2 and 3
 

 38. 

__________ has (have) wavelengths that are longer than visible light.
a.
Gamma-rays
b.
Ultraviolet light
c.
Infrared radiation
d.
X-rays
e.
a, b and d above
 

 39. 

An atom can be excited
a.
if it emits a photon.
b.
if it collides with another atom or electron.
c.
if it absorbs a photon.
d.
a and b above
e.
b and c above
 

 40. 

The Copernican system was no more accurate than the Ptolemaic system in predicting the positions of the planets because
a.
the Copernican system included uniform circular motion.
b.
Copernicus used inaccurate data from Ptolemy's system.
c.
the Copernican system used the old value for the radius of Earth.
d.
in the Copernican system only Mercury and Venus orbit the sun, all other planets orbited Earth.
e.
Copernicus had been unable to detect parallax.
 

 41. 

In the diagram below, which of the transitions would absorb a photon with the greatest energy.

mc041-1.jpg
a.
Transition 3
b.
Transition 4
c.
Transition 5
d.
Transition 2
e.
Transition 1
 

 42. 

Increasing the diameter of a telescope

I.
increases its light gathering power.
II.
increases its resolving power.
III.
increases it magnifying power.
IV.
increases its chromatic aberration.
a.
I, II, & IV
b.
I, II, III, & IV
c.
I & II
d.
III & IV
e.
I, II, & III
 

 43. 

The centers of granules
a.
are fainter and hotter than their surroundings.
b.
are cool material falling from the photosphere to the regions below.
c.
show strong Zeeman effects.
d.
are brighter and cooler than their surroundings.
e.
are hot material rising to the photosphere from below.
 

 44. 

Ultraviolet radiation from a star
a.
will not penetrate Earth's atmosphere and reach the ground.
b.
has a wavelength that is longer than the visible light emitted by the star.
c.
has a wavelength that is shorter than the x-rays emitted by the star.
d.
a and b
e.
b and c
 

 45. 

Which of the following types of electromagnetic radiation has the lowest energy?
a.
x-rays
b.
ultraviolet
c.
gamma-rays
d.
infrared radiation
e.
visible light
 

 46. 

Parallax would be easier to measure if
a.
the stars were farther away.
b.
Earth's orbit were larger.
c.
Earth moved faster along its orbit.
d.
all of these
e.
none of these
 

 47. 

If a star's spectrum does not contain spectral lines characteristic of a certain element, can we conclude that the star do not contain that element? Why or Why not?  (Answer both questions)
a.
Yes, Because the spectral lines are like a fingerprint and will identify the elements present.
b.
No, Because the element could only exist below the photosphere and would not be visible.
c.
No, Because the spectral lines are like a fingerprint and will identify the elements present.
d.
Yes, Because the element could only exist below the photosphere and would not be visible.
e.
All of the above
f.
A and B
g.
C and D
h.
None of the above
 

 48. 

The force due to gravity between two objects depends on
I.
the mass of each object.
II.
the distance each object is from Earth.
III.
the distance between the two objects.
IV.
the speed of light.
a.
I & III
b.
I, II, & III
c.
II & IV
d.
I & II
e.
I, II, III, & IV
 

 49. 

Newton concluded that some force had to act on the moon because
a.
a force is needed to pull the moon outward.
b.
a force is needed to pull the moon away from straight-line motion.
c.
a force is needed to keep the moon in motion.
d.
the moon moved at a constant velocity.
e.
all of the above
 

 50. 

__________ has (have) wavelengths that are shorter than visible light.

I.
Gamma-rays
II.
Ultraviolet light
III.
Infrared radiation
IV.
X-rays
a.
I & IV
b.
I & II
c.
I, II, & IV
d.
II, III, & IV
e.
II & III
 

 51. 

____________ is (are) produced by atomic transitions in the presence of a strong magnetic field.
a.
The Zeeman effect
b.
The coronal hole
c.
Spicules
d.
Differential rotation
e.
Granules
 

 52. 

Which of the following types of electromagnetic radiation has the greatest energy?
a.
visible light
b.
gamma-rays
c.
infrared radiation
d.
x-rays
e.
radio
 

 53. 

Galileo's telescopic discoveries of mountains on the moon and spots on the sun were controversial because they suggested that the sun and moon
a.
were the same kind of object.
b.
did not orbit Earth.
c.
orbited each other.
d.
were inhabited.
e.
were not perfect spheres.
 

 54. 

Refracting telescopes suffer from __________ aberration.
a.
Thermal lag
b.
Small diameter
c.
Chromatic
d.
Low light
 

 55. 

Which of the following can be determined by using the Doppler effect?
a.
The speed at which a star is moving away from an observer.
b.
The speed at which a car is traveling toward an observer.
c.
We need more information to answer this question
d.
The transverse velocity of a star.
e.
Both a and b
 

 56. 

Proved that the Sun was the center of the Universe.
a.
Tycho
b.
Aristole
c.
Galileo
d.
Kepler
e.
Copernicus
f.
Ptolmey
 

 57. 

Sunspots
a.
are generally found near the poles of the sun during sunspot maximum.
b.
are regions where material is rising from below the photosphere.
c.
produce spicules.
d.
are the result of convection.
e.
are cooler than their surroundings.
 

 58. 

When we say that gravitation is universal we mean that
a.
for every force there is an equal and opposite force.
b.
it is a property of all matter.
c.
it is important in all aspects of science.
d.
it could be deduced from the appearance of the universe.
e.
the force of gravity from one object extends to infinity.
 

 59. 

A recent sunspot maximum occurred in 2001, what is the year of the sunspot maximum that immediately follows the 2012 maximum if the solar cycle continues?
a.
2018 or 2019
b.
2029
c.
2034
d.
the last cycle started a Maunder minimum and the next maximum can not be predicted.
e.
2023
 

 60. 

Believed in a Earth Centered universe with all of the planets revolving around the sun.
a.
Galileo
b.
Copernicus
c.
Aristole
d.
Tycho
e.
Ptolmey
f.
Kepler
 

 61. 

Which of the following people did not accept a heliocentric model for the universe?
a.
Tycho
b.
Copernicus
c.
Galileo
d.
Kepler
e.
Newton
 

 62. 

The __________ Tables were based on a heliocentric model of the universe and used elliptical orbits for the planets.
a.
Heliocentric
b.
Geocentric
c.
Rudolphine
d.
Copernician
 

 63. 

Was the first to suggest that the Sun was the center of the Universe.
a.
Tycho
b.
Kepler
c.
Galileo
d.
Aristole
e.
Copernicus
f.
Ptolmey
 

 64. 

The diagram below illustrates a light source, a gas cloud, and three different lines of sight. Along which line of sight would an observer see an absorption spectrum?

mc064-1.jpg**
a.
none of them
b.
2
c.
2 and 3
d.
1
e.
3
 

 65. 

The chromosphere of the sun
a.
is hotter than the photosphere.
b.
appears yellow-white in color during total solar eclipse.
c.
is the visible surface of the sun.
d.
produces an absorption spectrum.
e.
all of the above.
 

 66. 

Differential rotation of the sun (best answer)
a.
implies that the sun's southern hemisphere and northern hemisphere rotate in opposite directions.
b.
is caused by the magnetic dynamo inside the sun.
c.
causes the heating in the chromosphere and corona that makes them hotter than the photosphere.
d.
implies that the equatorial regions of the sun rotates faster than the polar regions.
e.
causes the sunspots to migrate slowly from the equator toward the poles as the sun rotates.
 

 67. 

A telescope that suffers from chromatic aberration and has a low light gathering power is most likely
a.
a small diameter refracting telescope.
b.
an infrared telescope.
c.
a large diameter reflecting telescope.
d.
a large diameter refracting telescope.
e.
a small diameter reflecting telescope.
 

 68. 

Gravity obeys an inverse square relation. This statement implies that the force due to gravity between two masses
a.
will cause the two masses to move in a straight line.
b.
will increase as the distance between the two masses increases.
c.
will cause the two masses to orbit each other.
d.
will cause the two masses to move away from each other.
e.
will decrease as the square of the distance between the two masses increases.
 

 69. 

Granulation is caused by
a.
rising gas below the photosphere.
b.
the heating in the chromosphere.
c.
shock waves in the corona.
d.
the solar wind flowing away from the corona.
e.
sunspots.
 

 70. 

Astronomers build telescopes on tops of mountains because
a.
there is less air to dim the light.
b.
the seeing is better.
c.
CCDs work better when there is less oxygen in the air.
d.
all of the above
e.
a and b
 

 71. 

A(n) __________ is a circle whose center is located on the circumference of another circle.
a.
epicycle
b.
equant
c.
ellipse
d.
deferent
e.
retrograde loop
 

 72. 

Was the first to show that planets orbited the sun.
a.
Aristole
b.
Tycho
c.
Kepler
d.
Galileo
e.
Copernicus
f.
Ptolmey
 

 73. 

You are standing near a railroad track and a train is moving toward you at 60 mph and blowing its horn. What will you notice as the train moves past you?
a.
As the train approaches, the horn will sound higher in pitch than when the train is moving away.
b.
The horn will get louder as the train moves away from you.
c.
There will be no change in the pitch of the horn as it moves by.
d.
The horn will get quieter as the train moves toward you.
e.
As the train approaches, the horn will sound lower in pitch than when the train is moving away.
 

 74. 

It a planet has an orbital period of eight years, using Kepler’s laws, what would the distance of the planet be from the sun?
a.
2-AU
b.
3-AU
c.
4-AU
d.
5-AU
 

 75. 

A __________ telescope has an objective that is a lens.
a.
Reflecting
b.
Refracting
c.
Newtonian
d.
Large Diameter
 

 76. 

The __________ of a telescope is a measure of its ability to show fine detail and depends on the diameter of the objective.
a.
spherical aberration
b.
light-gathering power
c.
focal length
d.
magnifying power
e.
resolving power
 

 77. 

Ptolemy's model of the universe
a.
included elliptical orbits.
b.
was heliocentric.
c.
contained epicycles.
d.
all of the above
e.
none of the above
 

 78. 

The neutral hydrogen atom consists of
a.
one proton and one neutron.
b.
one proton and one electron.
c.
an isotope and an ion.
d.
one proton.
e.
one proton, one neutron, and one electron.
 

 79. 

Radio telescopes have poor resolving power because
a.
their diameters are so large.
b.
the energy they receive is not electromagnetic radiation.
c.
radio waves have long wavelengths.
d.
a and b
e.
none of the above
 

 80. 

The most common stars are
a.
white dwarfs.
b.
giants.
c.
supergiants.
d.
lower main sequence stars.
e.
upper main sequence stars.
 

 81. 

Long wavelength visible light
a.
will appear red in color to the average human eye.
b.
will have a greater energy than short wavelength visible light.
c.
will appear blue in color to the average human eye.
d.
has a higher frequency than short wavelength visible light.
e.
will have a speed that is faster than short wavelength light.
 

 82. 

Blue light
a.
has a longer wavelength than red light.
b.
has a greater energy than ultraviolet light.
c.
has a lower frequency than red light.
d.
has a greater energy than red light.
e.
travels at a greater speed than red light.
 

 83. 

Radio telescopes are important in astronomy because
a.
they can detect cool hydrogen.
b.
they have no chromatic aberration.
c.
they have high magnification.
d.
they have no spherical aberration.
e.
the can detect interstellar dust clouds.
 

Short Answer
Provide a short answer for the following question. (5-Points or More Each)
 

 84. 

Name the layers of our sun starting with the first visible layer and work outward.

      a.___________________________________________


      b.___________________________________________


      c.___________________________________________
 

 

 85. 

Complete the following diagram clearly showing the following:

      The star groupings.
      The percentage of stars on each of these groupings.
      The name of each of these groupings.

co085-1.jpg
 

 

 

 86. 

Fill in the following table:
Spectral Class
Temperature (K)
Balmer Lines
Other Elements

   

   

   

   

   

   

   
 

 

 87. 

What are Kepler's three laws?

1.__________________________________________________________________


2. __________________________________________________________________


3. __________________________________________________________________
 

 88. 

What are Newton's three laws of motion.

1.__________________________________________________________________


2. __________________________________________________________________


3. __________________________________________________________________
 



 
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